and apply the IS principles upon which the Law of Success is based. the foundation of Napoleon Hill's philosophy of pe. number of creative thinking techniques to identify potential solutions, then further .. Test this for yourself – read a passage from a book aloud, with an observer. A CIP record for this book is available from the British Library. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. Adair, John. The art of creative thinking: how.
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Resource 3: Creative thinking emergency toolkit for creativity as any teaching and learning resource. .. book, as that would defeat the purpose of pursuing. Creativity. • Creativity – coming up with something new and original. • Skills of thinking, attribute listing, metaphorical thinking Author of 62 books in Introduction: understanding why creative and critical thinking skills are used in creative thinking and those used in critical thinking. . Keep an ideas book.
The ancient Greeks had no terms corresponding to "to create" or "creator" except for the expression "poiein" "to make" , which only applied to poiesis poetry and to the poietes poet, or "maker" who made it. Plato did not believe in art as a form of creation.
Asked in The Republic ,  "Will we say, of a painter, that he makes something? Boorstin , "the early Western conception of creativity was the Biblical story of creation given in the Genesis. In the Judaeo-Christian tradition, creativity was the sole province of God; humans were not considered to have the ability to create something new except as an expression of God's work. However, none of these views are similar to the modern concept of creativity, and the individual was not seen as the cause of creation until the Renaissance.
This could be attributed to the leading intellectual movement of the time, aptly named humanism , which developed an intensely human-centric outlook on the world, valuing the intellect and achievement of the individual. However, this shift was gradual and would not become immediately apparent until the Enlightenment. In particular, they refer to the work of Francis Galton , who through his eugenicist outlook took a keen interest in the heritability of intelligence, with creativity taken as an aspect of genius.
In his work Art of Thought, published in , Wallas presented one of the first models of the creative process. In the Wallas stage model, creative insights and illuminations may be explained by a process consisting of 5 stages: i preparation preparatory work on a problem that focuses the individual's mind on the problem and explores the problem's dimensions , ii incubation where the problem is internalized into the unconscious mind and nothing appears externally to be happening , iii intimation the creative person gets a "feeling" that a solution is on its way , iv illumination or insight where the creative idea bursts forth from its preconscious processing into conscious awareness ; v verification where the idea is consciously verified, elaborated, and then applied.
Wallas' model is often treated as four stages, with "intimation" seen as a sub-stage. Wallas considered creativity to be a legacy of the evolutionary process, which allowed humans to quickly adapt to rapidly changing environments. Simonton  provides an updated perspective on this view in his book, Origins of genius: Darwinian perspectives on creativity. Guilford 's address to the American Psychological Association , which helped popularize the topic  and focus attention on a scientific approach to conceptualizing creativity.
It should be noted that the London School of Psychology had instigated psychometric studies of creativity as early as with the work of H.
Hargreaves into the Faculty of Imagination,  but it did not have the same impact. Statistical analysis led to the recognition of creativity as measured as a separate aspect of human cognition to IQ -type intelligence, into which it had previously been subsumed. Guilford's work suggested that above a threshold level of IQ, the relationship between creativity and classically measured intelligence broke down.
Kaufman and Beghetto introduced a "four C" model of creativity; mini-c "transformative learning" involving "personally meaningful interpretations of experiences, actions, and insights" , little-c everyday problem solving and creative expression , Pro-C exhibited by people who are professionally or vocationally creative though not necessarily eminent and Big-C creativity considered great in the given field.
This model was intended to help accommodate models and theories of creativity that stressed competence as an essential component and the historical transformation of a creative domain as the highest mark of creativity. It also, the authors argued, made a useful framework for analyzing creative processes in individuals. Craft makes a similar distinction between "high" and "little c" creativity.
Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi  has defined creativity in terms of those individuals judged to have made significant creative, perhaps domain-changing contributions.
Simonton has analysed the career trajectories of eminent creative people in order to map patterns and predictors of creative productivity. Interpretation of the results of these studies has led to several possible explanations of the sources and methods of creativity. Incubation[ edit ] Incubation is a temporary break from creative problem solving that can result in insight.
Ward  lists various hypotheses that have been advanced to explain why incubation may aid creative problem-solving, and notes how some empirical evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that incubation aids creative problem in that it enables "forgetting" of misleading clues. Absence of incubation may lead the problem solver to become fixated on inappropriate strategies of solving the problem.
This allows for unique connections to be made without our consciousness trying to make logical order out of the problem.
Guilford  drew a distinction between convergent and divergent production commonly renamed convergent and divergent thinking. Convergent thinking involves aiming for a single, correct solution to a problem, whereas divergent thinking involves creative generation of multiple answers to a set problem.
Divergent thinking is sometimes used as a synonym for creativity in psychology literature. Other researchers have occasionally used the terms flexible thinking or fluid intelligence , which are roughly similar to but not synonymous with creativity.
Some evidence shows that when people use their imagination to develop new ideas, those ideas are heavily structured in predictable ways by the properties of existing categories and concepts. The EII theory relies mainly on five basic principles, namely: The co-existence of and the difference between explicit and implicit knowledge; The simultaneous involvement of implicit and explicit processes in most tasks; The redundant representation of explicit and implicit knowledge; The integration of the results of explicit and implicit processing; The iterative and possibly bidirectional processing.
A computational implementation of the theory was developed based on the CLARION cognitive architecture and used to simulate relevant human data. This work represents an initial step in the development of process-based theories of creativity encompassing incubation, insight, and various other related phenomena.
Main article: Conceptual blending In The Act of Creation , Arthur Koestler introduced the concept of bisociation — that creativity arises as a result of the intersection of two quite different frames of reference. In the s, various approaches in cognitive science that dealt with metaphor , analogy , and structure mapping have been converging, and a new integrative approach to the study of creativity in science, art and humor has emerged under the label conceptual blending.
Honing theory[ edit ] Honing theory, developed principally by psychologist Liane Gabora , posits that creativity arises due to the self-organizing, self-mending nature of a worldview. The creative process is a way in which the individual hones and re-hones an integrated worldview.
Honing theory places emphasis not only on the externally visible creative outcome but also the internal cognitive restructuring and repair of the worldview brought about by the creative process. When faced with a creatively demanding task, there is an interaction between the conception of the task and the worldview.
The conception of the task changes through interaction with the worldview, and the worldview changes through interaction with the task.
This interaction is reiterated until the task is complete, at which point not only is the task conceived of differently, but the worldview is subtly or drastically transformed as it follows the natural tendency of a worldview to attempt to resolve dissonance and seek internal consistency amongst its components, whether they be ideas, attitudes, or bits of knowledge. A central feature of honing theory is the notion of a potentiality state.
Midway through the creative process one may have made associations between the current task and previous experiences, but not yet disambiguated which aspects of those previous experiences are relevant to the current task.
It is at that point that it can be said to be in a potentiality state, because how it will actualize depends on the different internally or externally generated contexts it interacts with. Honing theory is held to explain certain phenomena not dealt with by other theories of creativity, for example, how different works by the same creator are observed in studies to exhibit a recognizable style or 'voice' even though in different creative outlets.
This is not predicted by theories of creativity that emphasize chance processes or the accumulation of expertise, but it is predicted by honing theory, according to which personal style reflects the creator's uniquely structured worldview. Another example is in the environmental stimulus for creativity. Creativity is commonly considered to be fostered by a supportive, nurturing, trustworthy environment conducive to self-actualization.
However, research shows that creativity is also associated with childhood adversity, which would stimulate honing. Everyday imaginative thought[ edit ] In everyday thought, people often spontaneously imagine alternatives to reality when they think "if only It makes use of the results of divergent thinking tests see below by processing them further.
It gives more weight to ideas that are radically different from other ideas in the response. Guilford 's group,  which pioneered the modern psychometric study of creativity, constructed several tests to measure creativity in Plot Titles, where participants are given the plot of a story and asked to write original titles.
Quick Responses is a word-association test scored for uncommonness. Figure Concepts, where participants were given simple drawings of objects and individuals and asked to find qualities or features that are common by two or more drawings; these were scored for uncommonness.
Unusual Uses is finding unusual uses for common everyday objects such as bricks. Remote Associations, where participants are asked to find a word between two given words e. Originality — The statistical rarity of the responses among the test subjects. Elaboration — The amount of detail in the responses. Such tests, sometimes called Divergent Thinking DT tests have been both supported  and criticized. When compared to human raters, NLP techniques were shown to be reliable and valid in scoring the originality.
Semantic networks were also used to devise originality scores that yielded significant correlations with socio-personal measures. Kaufman and Mark A. Runco  combined expertise in creativity research, natural language processing, computational linguistics, and statistical data analysis to devise a scalable system for computerized automated testing SparcIt Creativity Index Testing system. This system enabled automated scoring of DT tests that is reliable, objective, and scalable, thus addressing most of the issues of DT tests that had been found and reported.
In these studies, personality traits such as independence of judgement, self-confidence, attraction to complexity, aesthetic orientation, and risk-taking are used as measures of the creativity of individuals.
Compared to non-artists, artists tend to have higher levels of openness to experience and lower levels of conscientiousness, while scientists are more open to experience, conscientious , and higher in the confidence-dominance facets of extraversion compared to non-scientists. These methods use quantitative characteristics such as the number of publications, patents, or performances of a work. While this method was originally developed for highly creative personalities, today it is also available as self-report questionnaires supplemented with frequent, less outstanding creative behaviors such as writing a short story or creating your own recipes.
For example, the Creative Achievement Questionnaire , a self-report test that measures creative achievement across 10 domains, was described in and shown to be reliable and valid when compared to other measures of creativity and to independent evaluation of creative output. It is the self-report questionnaire most frequently used in research.
This joint focus highlights both the theoretical and practical importance of the relationship: researchers are interested not only if the constructs are related, but also how and why. Displays of creativity are moderated by intelligence.
To demonstrate this, Gardner cited examples of different famous creators, each of whom differed in their types of intelligences e. Picasso spatial intelligence ; Freud intrapersonal ; Einstein logical-mathematical ; and Gandhi interpersonal.
Experiential sub-theory — the ability to use pre-existing knowledge and skills to solve new and novel problems — is directly related to creativity. The Cattell—Horn—Carroll theory includes creativity as a subset of intelligence. Specifically, it is associated with the broad group factor of long-term storage and retrieval Glr.
Silvia et al. Martindale  extended the CHC-theory in the sense that it was proposed that those individuals who are creative are also selective in their processing speed Martindale argues that in the creative process, larger amounts of information are processed more slowly in the early stages, and as the individual begins to understand the problem, the processing speed is increased.
Type 1 is a conscious process, and concerns goal directed thoughts, which are explained by g. His advice? Bring different disciplines and cultures together and search for the places where they connect. About 70 years ago James Webb Young already explained how the incubation process works. Making Ideas Happen , Scott Belsky Generating an abundance of creative ideas is one thing… but as any creative will tell you: In this book, Scott Belsky founder and CEO of Behance helps you to create order in the ever-growing list of action steps that is a logical consequence of being creative.
In this book, he explains several principles and procedures for creative problem-solving. As an advertising director and copywriter, he knows how to entertain and inform his audience. Although it was first published in , Applied Imagination is still topical today. An easy read filled with interesting stories and references. Weird Ideas that Work , Robert I. Sutton Sutton explains how large organisations usually aim to prevent variation.
While this practice allows them to do things safer, faster, cheaper and more consistently, it also prevents innovation. Reading how IDEO works will teach you among other things the value of observation, empathy, rapid prototyping and creating the right environment for innovation. The book contains some incredible supporting case studies. Biomimicry; innovation inspired by nature , Janine Benyus Benyus explains how humanity could benefit from the 3.
Reading any of these books will offer you valuable insights and strategies to make yourself more creative and your organisation more innovative. Please share it in the comments down below. Like this article?